About the Authors

Melissa Gladstone

mgladstone@btinternet.com

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi

Gillian A. Lancaster

Affiliation Postgraduate Statistics Centre, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Eric Umar

Affiliation Department of Community Health, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi

Maggie Nyirenda

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi

Edith Kayira

Affiliation Wellcome Trust Research Labs, Blantyre, Malawi

Nynke R. van den Broek

Affiliation Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Rosalind L. Smyth

Affiliation School of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, Institute of Child Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

Rosalind L. Smyth is on the Board of Directors of Public Library of Science (http://www.plos.org/about/board.php).

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MG GAL EU MN EK NRvdB RLS. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: MG GAL EU MN EK NRvdB RLS. Designed the experiments/the study: MG GAL EK NRvdB RLS. Analyzed the data: MG GAL EU EK RLS. Collected data/did experiments for the study: EU MN EK. Enrolled patients: EU MN EK. Wrote the first draft of the paper: MG GAL RLS. Contributed to the writing of the paper: MG GAL EU NRvdB RLS. Helped in data collection and transcription and clean-up of the data: EK. Worked with MG throughout the study from the piloting up to the end: EK. Technical oversight and ensured integrity of study: NRvdB.