About the Authors

Jerry M. Spiegel, Annalee Yassi
School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Jerry M. Spiegel, Shafik Dharamsi
Centre for International Health, College of Health Disciplines, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Jerry M. Spiegel, Shafik Dharamsi
Liu Institute for Global Issues, College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Shafik Dharamsi
Department of Family Practice, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Kishor M. Wasan
Division of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Annalee Yassi
Global Health Research Program, College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Burton Singer
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

Peter J. Hotez
George Washington University, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, and Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Christy Hanson
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, D.C., United States of America

Donald A. P. Bundy
The World Bank, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

KW has received funding provided by the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development via the Bill/Melinda Gates Foundation) toward the development of a safe and efficacious oral AmB formulation, but has no competing interests since he is not an employee of iCo Therapeutics Inc., the company that has licensed the technology from UBC and is not working with any other companies that are developing Amphotericin B products. PJH is partially supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, through Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America. He is an inventor on an international patent application (PCT/US02/33106; filed November 11, 2002) entitled “Hookworm vaccine.” Additional provisional patents have been filed for hookworm and schistosomiasis vaccines. The patent was filed in the United States, Brazil, India, China, and Mexico. The patents belong to The George Washington University, with an exclusive license to the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute, a nonprofit (501c3) organization devoted to increasing the use of vaccines worldwide. Because hookworm and schistosomiasis are neglected diseases afflicting the poorest of the poor in developing countries, these vaccines have no anticipated commercial value or income generating potential. The rationale for filing a patent is to ensure that the vaccine is developed for those who need it in developing countries, and to encourage vaccine manufacturers in developing countries to work with the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute for manufacture of the hookworm vaccine. PJH is Chair of the Department of MITM at GWU and is President of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute. The other authors declare no competing interests.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: JMS SD KMW AY BHS PJH CH DAPB. Wrote first draft of their Viewpoints: JMS BS PJH. Contributed to the writing of the paper: JMS SD KMW AY BHS PJH CH DAPB.