About the Authors

Sam Luboga

Affiliation Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Sarah B. Macfarlane

Macfarlane@globalhealth.ucsf.edu

Affiliation University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Johan von Schreeb

Affiliation Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Margaret E. Kruk

Affiliation University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Meena N. Cherian

Affiliation World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Staffan Bergström

Affiliation Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Paul B. M. Bossyns

Affiliation Belgian Technical Cooperation, Brussels, Belgium

Ernest Denerville

Affiliation Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Delanyo Dovlo

Affiliation World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Moses Galukande

Affiliation Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Renee Y. Hsia

Affiliation University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Sudha P. Jayaraman

Affiliation University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Lindsey A. Lubbock

Affiliation University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Charles Mock

Affiliation University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Doruk Ozgediz

Affiliation University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Patrick Sekimpi

Affiliation Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Andreas Wladis

Affiliation Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Ahmed Zakariah

Affiliation National Ambulance Services, Accra, Ghana

Naméoua Babadi Dade

Affiliation Centre Hospitalier Régional, Dosso, Niger

Peter Donkor

Affiliation Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Jane Kabutu Gatumbu

Affiliation Kenyan Society of Anesthesia, Nairobi, Kenya

Patrick Hoekman

Affiliation Belgian Technical Cooperation, Niamey, Niger

Carel B. IJsselmuiden

Affiliation Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED), Geneva, Switzerland

Dean T. Jamison

Affiliation University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Nasreen Jessani

Affiliation International Development Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

Peter Jiskoot

Affiliation Clinical Officer Training, Limbe, Malawi

Ignatius Kakande

Affiliation National University of Rwanda, Butare, Rwanda

Jacqueline R. Mabweijano

Affiliation Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda

Naboth Mbembati

Affiliation Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Colin McCord

Affiliation Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Cephas Mijumbi

Affiliation Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Helder de Miranda

Affiliation Catholic University, School of Medicine, Beira, Mozambique

Charles A. Mkony

Affiliation Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Pascoal Mocumbi

Affiliation World Health Organization, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

Jean Bosco Ndihokubwayo

Affiliation World Health Organization, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

Pierre Ngueumachi

Affiliation Medical School of Universite des Montagnes, Douala, Cameroon

Gebreamlak Ogbaselassie

Affiliation Ministry of Health and United Nations Population Fund, Asmara, Eritrea

Evariste Lodi Okitombahe

Affiliation Belgium Technical Cooperation, Dakar, Senegal

Cheikh Tidiane Toure

Affiliation Université Cheickh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal

Fernando Vaz

Affiliation Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Maputo, Mozambique

Charlotte M. Zikusooka

Affiliation HealthNet, Kampala, Uganda

Haile T. Debas

Affiliation University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

for the Bellagio Essential Surgery Group (BESG)

Competing Interests

Several of the authors are staff members of the World Health Organization. They and the other authors are responsible for the views expressed in this publication and they do not necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health Organization.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SL SBM JvS MEK MNC SB PBB ED DD MG RYH SJ LAL C Mock DO PS AW AZ NBD PD JKG PH CI DTJ NJ PJ IK JRM NM C McCord C Mijumbi HdM CAM PM JBN PN GO ELO CTT FV CMZ HTD. Wrote the first draft of the paper: SBM MEK RYH SJ AW. Contributed to the writing of the paper: SL SBM JvS MEK MNC SB PBB ED DD MG RYH SJ LAL C Mock DO PS AW AZ NBD PD JKG PH CI DTJ NJ PJ IK JRM NM C McCord C Mijumbi HdM CAM PM JBN PN GO ELO CTT FV CMZ HTD. Convened the meeting in Kampala that discussed the evidence that is included in the paper: SL. Contributions to this paper were coordinated by SBM. Helped coordinate authorship and revisions by authors and edited the manuscript: LAL Instrumental in the creation of the Bellagio Essential Surgery Group; played a leading role in the organization, planning its meetings, and contributing to its writings: HTD.