About the Authors

Nynke R. van den Broek
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Sarah A. White, Mark Goodall, Chikondi Ntonya, Edith Kayira
Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi

George Kafulafula
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi

James P. Neilson
School of Reproductive & Developmental Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: NRvdB SAW MG CN GK JPN. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: NRvdB SAW MG CN EK GK JPN. Designed the experiments/the study: NRvdB JPN. Analyzed the data: NRvdB SAW. Collected data/did experiments for the study: NRvdB CN EK. Enrolled patients: CN EK. Wrote the first draft of the paper: NRvdB JPN. Contributed to the writing of the paper: SAW CN EK GK. NvdB and JPN planned the study. With SAW, they wrote the analysis plan and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. JPN performed the meta- analysis. MG, CN, and GK managed the project in Malawi. CN and EK managed the teams of research midwives in Malawi and performed the ultrasound scans.