About the Authors

Joachim Scholz

scholz.joachim@mgh.harvard.edu

Affiliation Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Richard J. Mannion

Affiliation Academic Neurosurgery Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Daniela E. Hord

Affiliation Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Robert S. Griffin

Affiliation Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Bhupendra Rawal

Affiliation Massachusetts General Hospital Biostatistics Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Hui Zheng

Affiliation Massachusetts General Hospital Biostatistics Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Daniel Scoffings

Affiliation Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Amanda Phillips

Affiliation Department of Physiotherapy Services, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Jianli Guo

Affiliation Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rodney J. C. Laing

Affiliation Academic Neurosurgery Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Salahadin Abdi

Affiliation Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine, and Pain Management, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Isabelle Decosterd

Affiliation Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Center, and Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Clifford J. Woolf

Affiliation Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

JS has received speaker's fees from Pfizer and grant support from GlaxoSmithKline, Pharmacia, and Pfizer. He has served on an advisory board for Pfizer. RJM and RJCL have received grant support from Pfizer. SA has received speaker's fees from Elan and Pfizer and grant support from Allergan and Progenics. He has served as a consultant for Alpharma, Elan, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, OrthoMcNeil, Pfizer, and Union Chimique Belge (UCB). ID has received speaker's fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer. CJW has received speaker's fees from Eli Lilly, Merck, Roche, and Pfizer and grant support from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer. He has served on advisory boards for Abbott, Eli Lilly, Endo, GlaxoSmithKline, Hydra Biosciences, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, and Taisho. He is a founder and chairman of the scientific advisory board of Solace Pharmaceuticals and a founder and board member of Ferrumax Pharmaceuticals. He is a member of the editorial board of PLoS Medicine. The other authors have no competing interests. The General Hospital Corporation owns the copyright on the Standardized Evaluation of Pain (StEP).

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: JS RJM DEH RSG BR HZ DS AP JG RJCL SA ID CJW. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: JS RJM DEH RSG BR HZ DS AP JG RJCL SA ID CJW. Designed the experiments/the study: JS RJM BR SA ID CJW. Analyzed the data: JS RSG BR HZ DS JG. Collected data/did experiments for the study: JS RJM DEH AP RJCL SA. Enrolled patients: RJM DEH AP RJCL SA. Wrote the first draft of the paper: JS CJW. Contributed to the writing of the paper: JS RJM RSJ BR HZ DS AP RJCL ID. Performed the pain assessment in the patients: RJM DEH SA. Reviewed the draft: SA.