About the Authors

A. Roderick Escombe, David A. J Moore, Jon S Friedland, Carlton A Evans
Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

A. Roderick Escombe, David A. J Moore, Jon S Friedland, Carlton A Evans
Wellcome Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

A. Roderick Escombe, David A. J Moore, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Perú

David A. J Moore, Robert H Gilman, Patricia Sheen, Willi Quino, Carlton A Evans
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú

David A. J Moore, Robert H Gilman, Carlos Martínez, Carlton A Evans
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Marcos Navincopa, Eduardo Ticona
Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú

Marcos Navincopa, Rocio Ramirez, Armando Gonzalez
Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima, Perú

Bailey Mitchell
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., United States of America

Catherine Noakes
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

rod.escombe@imperial.ac.uk

Competing Interests

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this paper, apart from Bailey Mitchell, who invented the ESCS ionizer, which was patented while he was a USDA scientist. The patent is owned by USDA. The senior author, Carlton Evans, has no relationship with Evans Vaccines, which supplied the PPD.

Author Contributions

ARE, DAJM, RHG, MN, ET, BM, CN, AG, JSF, and CAE contributed to the study design, data interpretation, and writing of this manuscript. ARE, CM, PS, RR, and WQ undertook data collection, and CM, PS, RR, and WQ additionally contributed to data interpretation and approved the final manuscript. ARE had access to all data and is the guarantor of the manuscript.