About the Authors

Charlie W Lees, Colin L Noble, Elaine R Nimmo, Hazel E Drummond, Gwo-Tzer Ho, Ian D. R Arnott, Jack Satsangi
Gastrointestinal Unit, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Charlie W Lees, Sarah E. M Howie
Immunobiology Group, Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Inflammation Research, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

William J Zacharias, Deborah L Gumucio
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Mark Tremelling, Miles Parkes
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Research Group, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Albert Tenesa, Susan Farrington, Harry Campbell, Malcolm G Dunlop
Colon Cancer Genetics Group, MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Jennine Cornelius, Lauri Diehl
Department of Pathology, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California, United States of America

Leif Torkvist
Department of Medical & Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

John Kao
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Henry D Appelman
Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

Lauri Diehl is a paid employee of Genentech, Inc and a stockholder in that company. While this paper does not describe any Genentech product, it is possible that these findings may be relevant to a pathway or pathways of interest to the company for current or future therapeutic agents. None of the other authors have any competing interests to declare.

Author Contributions

CWL, WJZ, CLN, ERN, LD, DLG, and JS designed the experiments/the study. CWL, WJZ, MT, CLN, JC, LT, JK, HED, IDRA, HDA, LD, MP, and SEMH collected data or did experiments for the study. CWL, WJZ, MT, AT, JK, LD, and DLG analyzed the data. CWL, MT, CLN, LT, G-TH, IRDA, SF, MGD and MP enrolled patients. CWL and WJZ wrote the first draft of the paper. CWL, WJZ, MT, AT, HC, MGD, SEMH, DLG, and JS contributed to writing the paper.