About the Authors

Lewis H Kuller
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Russell Tracy
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America

Waldo Belloso
Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Stephane De Wit
Saint-Pierre Hospital, Brussels, Belgium

Fraser Drummond
National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

H. Clifford Lane
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Bruno Ledergerber
University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland

Jens Lundgren
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Jacqueline Neuhaus, James D Neaton
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

Daniel Nixon
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America

Nicholas I Paton
Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

Bruno Ledergerber reported travel grants, grants or honoraria from Abbott, Aventis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Roche and Tibotec. Jens Lundgren reported honoraria and research grants from Boehringer-Ingelheim, Roche, Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck Sharp & Dohme, GlaxoSmithKline, Tibotec, Pfizer, and Gilead. Russell Tracy reported the following activities: (1) Wake Forest University Pepper Center on Aging—External Advisory Board; (2) Johns Hopkins University Pepper Center on Aging—External Advisory Board; (3) University of Florida Pepper Center on Aging—External Advisory Board; (4) Haematologic Technologies—owner; thrombosis and fibrinolysis biochemical reagents and blood collection tubes; contract research in this area; and (5) Ashcraft & Gerel Attorneys at Law—consulting on mechanisms in inflammation, atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

Author Contributions

All of the authors provided input to drafts of the manuscript. LHK, RT, and JDN are responsible for the design of the biomarker study. RT's laboratory carried out the analyses of the specimens. JDN was a co-chair of the SMART study. JDN and JN carried out data analyses for the paper.