About the Authors

Ewout W Steyerberg

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: E.Steyerberg@ErasmusMC.nl

Affiliation Center for Medical Decision Sciences, Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Nino Mushkudiani

Affiliation Center for Medical Decision Sciences, Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Pablo Perel

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Nutrition and Public Health Intervention Research Unit, London, United Kingdom

Isabella Butcher

Affiliation Division of Community Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Juan Lu

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America

Gillian S McHugh

Affiliation Division of Community Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Gordon D Murray

Affiliation Division of Community Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Anthony Marmarou

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America

Ian Roberts

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Nutrition and Public Health Intervention Research Unit, London, United Kingdom

J. Dik F Habbema

Affiliation Center for Medical Decision Sciences, Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Andrew I. R Maas

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

EWS, NM, PB, and AIRM designed the study. EWS and NM analyzed the data. EWS wrote the first draft of the paper. EWS, PP, IB, JL, GSM, GDM, AM, IR, JDFH, and AIRM contributed to writing the paper. NM, PP, IB, JL, and GSM participated in the collection of data and organization of the databases from which this manuscript was developed. This work reflects the combined efforts of the IMPACT study project.