About the Authors

Ewout W Steyerberg, Nino Mushkudiani, J. Dik F Habbema
Center for Medical Decision Sciences, Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Pablo Perel, Ian Roberts
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Nutrition and Public Health Intervention Research Unit, London, United Kingdom

Isabella Butcher, Gillian S McHugh, Gordon D Murray
Division of Community Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Juan Lu, Anthony Marmarou
Department of Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America

Andrew I. R Maas
Department of Neurosurgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Corresponding Author

E.Steyerberg@ErasmusMC.nl

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

EWS, NM, PB, and AIRM designed the study. EWS and NM analyzed the data. EWS wrote the first draft of the paper. EWS, PP, IB, JL, GSM, GDM, AM, IR, JDFH, and AIRM contributed to writing the paper. NM, PP, IB, JL, and GSM participated in the collection of data and organization of the databases from which this manuscript was developed. This work reflects the combined efforts of the IMPACT study project.