About the Authors

Martin Cranage

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mcranage@sgul.ac.uk

Affiliation Centre for Infection, Division of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

Sally Sharpe

Affiliation Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, Salisbury, United Kingdom

Carolina Herrera

Affiliation Centre for Infection, Division of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

Alethea Cope

Affiliation Centre for Infection, Division of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

Mike Dennis

Affiliation Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, Salisbury, United Kingdom

Neil Berry

Affiliation Division of Retrovirology, National Institute for Biological Standards & Control, South Mimms, United Kingdom

Claire Ham

Affiliation Division of Retrovirology, National Institute for Biological Standards & Control, South Mimms, United Kingdom

Jonathan Heeney

Affiliations Department of Virology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, The Netherlands , Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Naser Rezk

Affiliation University of North Carolina Centers for Aids Research (CFAR) Clinical Pharmacology and Analytical Chemistry Core, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Angela Kashuba

Affiliation University of North Carolina Centers for Aids Research (CFAR) Clinical Pharmacology and Analytical Chemistry Core, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Peter Anton

Affiliation Center for Prevention Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Ian McGowan

¤ Current address: Magee Womens Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Affiliation Center for Prevention Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Robin Shattock

Affiliation Centre for Infection, Division of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Author Contributions

MC, SS, and RS designed the experiments; SS and MD were responsible for the in vivo work; C. Herrera performed the explant experiments; AC performed the ELISpot experiments; NB, C. Ham, and JH performed the quantitative PCR analyses; NR and AK were responsible for the assay of tenofovir; PA coordinated the overall Microbicide Development Programme; IMcG had oversight of the preclinical testing project; and MC wrote the manuscript.