About the Authors

Olivia Keiser, Matthias Egger, Martin W. G Brinkhof
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Catherine Orrell, Robin Wood
The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

Matthias Egger
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Hansjakob Furrer
Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Gilles van Cutsem
Khayelitsha Site B, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

Bruno Ledergerber
Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Andrew Boulle
School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Corresponding Author

egger@ispm.unibe.ch

Competing Interests

HF has participated in advisory boards of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, Merck Sharp & Dohme-Chibret (MSD) and Boehringer-Ingelheim. The institution of HF has received unrestricted educational grants from Abbott, GSK, BMS, Roche, Gilead, MSD, Boehringer-Ingelheim, and Essex. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

OK, ME, and AB designed the study. CO, RW, HF, GvC, and AB collected data for the study and enrolled patients. OK wrote the first draft of the paper, which was subsequently revised by CO and ME. All authors contributed to the final version of the paper. CO collected and entered all the data from the South African Gugulethu site. ME, MWGB, BL, and AB advised on the statistical analyses, which were done by OK. GvC represents the Khayelitsha cohort collaboration team, which includes staff from Médecins Sans Frontières, the Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, and the Provincial Government of the Western Cape.