About the Authors

Hendrik Streeck

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Zabrina L Brumme

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Michael Anastario

Affiliation Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Kristin W Cohen

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jonathan S Jolin

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Angela Meier

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Chanson J Brumme

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Eric S Rosenberg

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Galit Alter

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Todd M Allen

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Bruce D Walker

Affiliations Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America , Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America

Marcus Altfeld

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: maltfeld@partners.org

Affiliation Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

H. Streeck and M. Altfeld designed the experiments/the study. H. Streeck, Z.L. Brumme, K.W. Cohen, J.S. Jolin, and T.M. Allen collected data or did experiments for the study. H. Streeck, Z.L. Brumme, M. Anastario, J.S. Jolin, AM, CJB, and T.M. Allen analyzed the data. H. Streeck wrote the first draft of the paper. H. Streeck, Z.L. Brumme, M. Anastario, A. Meier, C.J. Brumme, G. Alter, B.D. Walker, and M. Altfeld contributed to writing the paper. Z.L. Brumme performed all HIV RNA sequencing and analyzed these data. K.W. Cohen performed some of the intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry acquisition. E.S. Rosenberg designed and recruited patient cohort, and enrolled patients. T.M. Allen was responsible for generation of viral sequence data.