About the Authors

Joël Mossong

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: joel.mossong@lns.etat.lu

Affiliations Microbiology Unit, Laboratoire National de Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg , Centre de Recherche Public Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Niel Hens

Affiliation Center for Statistics, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium

Mark Jit

Affiliation Modelling and Economics Unit, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom

Philippe Beutels

Affiliation Unit Health Economic and Modeling Infectious Diseases, Center for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Kari Auranen

Affiliation Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland

Rafael Mikolajczyk

Affiliation School of Public Health, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany

Marco Massari

Affiliation Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy

Stefania Salmaso

Affiliation Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy

Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba

Affiliation Department of Mathematics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Jacco Wallinga

Affiliation Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Janneke Heijne

Affiliation Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Malgorzata Sadkowska-Todys

Affiliation National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland

Magdalena Rosinska

Affiliation National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland

W. John Edmunds

Affiliation Modelling and Economics Unit, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JM, NH, MJ, JW, and WJE drafted the manuscript in consultation with all the other authors; the original idea and contact diary were conceived by WJE. JM conducted a pilot study on an adapted diary, and coordinated overall survey design and data collection. JM, MJ, PB, KA, RM, MM, GST, JW, JH, MST, and MR conducted the surveys in their respective countries. NH conducted the data mining and surface smoothing. JW and JH conducted the epidemic modelling. All authors approved the final manuscript.