About the Authors

Freya J. I Fowkes
Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Freya J. I Fowkes, Karen P Day
Department of Medical Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

Stephen J Allen, Angela Allen, David J Weatherall
The Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Michael P Alpers
PNG Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea

Corresponding Author

karen.day@med.nyu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

FJIF performed data analysis. SJA and AA undertook fieldwork. MPA, DJW, and KPD initiated and obtained funding for the project. FJIF, SJA, AA, MPA, DJW, and KPD discussed the results and produced the final manuscript.