About the Authors

Fraser Lewis

Contributed equally to this work with: Fraser Lewis, Gareth J Hughes

Address ¤ Current address: Veterinary Epidemiology Research Unit, SAC (Scottish Agricultural College), Inverness, Scotland

Affiliation Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland

Gareth J Hughes

Contributed equally to this work with: Fraser Lewis, Gareth J Hughes

Affiliation Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland

Andrew Rambaut

Affiliation Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland

Anton Pozniak

Affiliation Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Andrew J. Leigh Brown

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: A.Leigh-Brown@ed.ac.uk

Affiliation Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland

Competing Interests

ALP reports receiving consulting and lecture fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, and GlaxoSmithKline. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

FL and AJLB designed the study, and FL performed preliminary analyses. GJH analyzed the data and prepared the results for publication. AR developed the BEAST software and provided advice and assistance for data analysis. ALP recruited study subjects and supervised clinical care. All authors contributed to writing the paper.