About the Authors

Debbie A Lawlor, Nicholas J Timpson, George Davey Smith
Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Debbie A Lawlor, Roger M Harbord, George Davey Smith
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Nicholas J Timpson, Mark I McCarthy
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Sam Leary, Andy Ness
Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Mark I McCarthy
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Timothy M Frayling, Andrew T Hattersley
Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

Timothy M Frayling, Andrew T Hattersley
Diabetes Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

d.a.lawlor@bristol.ac.uk

Author Contributions

DAL designed the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the first draft of the paper. NJT and RMH analyzed the data and contributed to writing the paper. SL prepared the dataset, analyzed the data, and contributed to writing the paper. AN contributed to writing the paper. MIM and GDS designed the experiments and contributed to writing the paper. TMF collected data and contributed to writing the paper. ATH designed experiments, collected data, and contributed to writing the paper.