About the Authors

Anne E Hughes

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: A.Hughes@qub.ac.uk

Affiliation Department of Medical Genetics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Nick Orr

Affiliation Department of Medical Genetics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Chris Patterson

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Hossein Esfandiary

Affiliation Department of Medical Genetics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Ruth Hogg

Affiliation Centre for Vision Science and Vascular Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Vivienne McConnell

Affiliation Department of Medical Genetics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Giuliana Silvestri

Affiliation Centre for Vision Science and Vascular Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Usha Chakravarthy

Affiliation Centre for Vision Science and Vascular Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

Queen's University Belfast holds a patent titled “Protection against and treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.”

Author Contributions

AEH was the principal investigator of this study, had full access to all of the data, and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis and for the decision to submit this paper for publication. NO and HE assisted in the design and NO also assisted in implementation and data analysis. CP performed logistic regression and further statistical analysis. All AMD patients were under the supervision of GS and UC, who phenotyped and took patient samples and smoking history with the assistance of VMcC. RH provided smoking status of some patients and assisted with extraction of DNA. AEH wrote the manuscript, which has been approved by all authors.