About the Authors

Brian T Grimberg, Jia Xainli, Peter A Zimmerman, Christopher L King
The Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Tasanee Panichakul
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Amy McHenry
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, United States of America

Jetsumon Sattabongkot
Department of Entomology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand

Liwang Cui
Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Moses Bockarie
Entomology Unit, Papua New Guinea Institute for Medical Research, Papua New Guinea

Chetan Chitnis
Malaria Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India

John Adams
Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

Christopher L King
Veterans Affairs Research Service, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

BTG designed the study with PAZ and CLK. JS and MB organized collection of clinical samples. BTG, JX, AM, and TP conducted the experiments. RU, LC, CC, JA, and CLK contributed new reagents and analytic tools. BTG, RU, JA, PAZ, and CLK analyzed the data with input from all authors. BTG, PAZ, and CLK wrote the first draft, and all authors contributed to subsequent versions of the manuscript.