About the Authors

Ira M Longini Jr.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: longini@scharp.org

Affiliations Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America , Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Azhar Nizam

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics, The Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Mohammad Ali

Affiliation International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea

Mohammad Yunus

Affiliation International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Neeta Shenvi

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics, The Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

John D Clemens

Affiliation International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

IML, AN, MA, NS, and JDC designed the study and analyzed the data. All authors contributed to writing the paper. AN developed (i.e., researched, programmed, tested, and implemented) the stochastic simulator of cholera in Matlab (Bangladesh), and analyzed and interpreted the statistical and epidemiological results generated by the simulator. MY was involved as an investigator in the cholera vaccine trial that was conducted in the Matlab field area of the ICDDR,B from 1985 to 1989. NS helped analyze the simulation studies and transformed results into figures. Analysis of the data was based on a trial of cholera vaccines that JDC led in Bangladesh, and on his further analysis of herd protection in the trial data.