About the Authors

David A Rosen

Affiliation Department of Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Thomas M Hooton

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Walter E Stamm

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Peter A Humphrey

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Scott J Hultgren

Affiliation Department of Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DAR, TMH, WES, and SJH designed the study. TMH and WES enrolled patients. DAR, PAH, and SJH designed and performed the experiments. DAR, TMH, WES, PAH, and SJH analyzed the data and contributed to writing and editing the paper.