About the Authors

Yan Chen

Affiliation Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Heather C Whetstone

Affiliation Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Alvin C Lin

Affiliation Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Puviindran Nadesan

Affiliation Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Qingxia Wei

Affiliation Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Raymond Poon

Affiliation Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Benjamin A Alman

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: benjamin.alman@sickkids.ca

Affiliations Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada , Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

YC and BAA designed the study. YC, PN, QW, RP, and BAA analyzed the data. BAA enrolled patients. YC and BAA contributed to writing the paper. YC, HCW, and ACL collected data or performed experiments for this study. ACL provided mice expressing osteoblast-specific β-catenin null alleles. PN helped in transgenic mice work. QW provided the Ad-Cre virus that was used for this study.