About the Authors

Karen R Steingart

Affiliations Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America , Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Megan Henry

Affiliation County of Sacramento Department of Health and Human Services, Sacramento, California, United States of America

Suman Laal

Affiliations Department of Pathology, New York, New York, United States of America , Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America , Veterans Affairs Medical Center, New York, United States of America

Philip C Hopewell

Affiliations Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America , Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Andrew Ramsay

Affiliation UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Dick Menzies

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Canada , Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montréal Chest Institute, Montréal, Canada

Jane Cunningham

Affiliation UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Karin Weldingh

Affiliation Statens Serum Institut, Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Copenhagen, Denmark

Madhukar Pai

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: madhukar.pai@mcgill.ca

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Canada , Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montréal Chest Institute, Montréal, Canada

Competing Interests

KW is co-inventor on a number of patents relating to mycobacterial antigens which may be used for serological assays. All rights have been assigned to Statens Serum Institut.

Author Contributions

KRS, SL, PCH, AR, DM, JC, KW, and MP conceived and designed the study. KRS and MH collected and analyzed the data. KRS, MH, SL, AR, DM, KW, and MP interpreted the data. KRS, SL, and MP drafted the manuscript. KRS, SL, PCH, AR, DM, JC, KW, and MP performed critical revision of the manuscript.