About the Authors

Jonathan Dushoff
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America

Jonathan Dushoff, Cecile Viboud, Mark Miller
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Joshua B Plotkin
Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, United States of America

Lone Simonsen
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda Maryland, United States of America

Mark Loeb
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

David J. D Earn
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author

dushoff@eno.princeton.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

All authors discussed framing and interpretation, and contributed to writing the paper. JD conceived the study and implemented the model. DJDE and JBP helped develop the model and the techniques used to explore parameter space. LS and CV helped guide the exploration of parameter space, including vaccination scenarios and sensitivity analyses. MM and ML contributed to evaluating and clarifying the assumptions and interpretations of the model.