About the Authors

Teresa A Zimmers

Affiliations Dewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America , Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Jonathan Sheldon

Affiliation Devine, Connell & Sheldon, P.L.C., Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America

David A Lubarsky

Affiliations Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine, and Pain Management, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America , Department of Management, University of Miami School of Business, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Francisco López-Muñoz

Affiliation Department of Pharmacology, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain

Linda Waterman

Affiliation Department of Comparative Medicine and Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Richard Weisman

Affiliation Florida Poison Center–Miami, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Leonidas G Koniaris

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:LKoniaris@med.miami.edu

Affiliations Dewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America , Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Competing Interests

JPS practices capital defense. DAL has been a paid expert consultant in death penalty litigation. The other authors have no conflicts to disclose.

Author Contributions

TAZ, JPS, DAL, and LGK conceived the study. TAZ and JPS obtained protocol information and execution data. TAZ, DAL, and LGK analyzed the data and published literature. DAL, LW, and RW provided clinical insights. TAZ, JPS, and FLM provided historical perspectives and references. All authors contributed to writing and editing the manuscript.