About the Authors

Donald A Brand

Address ¤ Current address: Office of Health Outcomes Research, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America , Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America , School of Public Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America

Michaela Saisana

Affiliation Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy

Lisa A Rynn

Affiliation New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America

Fulvia Pennoni

Affiliation Department of Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy

Albert B Lowenfels

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Lowenfel@nymc.edu

Affiliations Department of Surgery, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America , Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DAB and ABL conceived and designed the study. LR and ABL collected the data. DAB, MS, FP, and ABL contributed to the statistical methodology, analyzed the data, and interpreted the results; and all authors contributed to writing the paper.