About the Authors

Friedemann Paul

Contributed equally to this work with: Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Orhan Aktas

Affiliations Cecilie-Vogt-Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany , Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany

Sven Jarius

Contributed equally to this work with: Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Orhan Aktas

Affiliations Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany , Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom , Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Orhan Aktas

Contributed equally to this work with: Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Orhan Aktas

Affiliations Cecilie-Vogt-Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany , Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany

Martin Bluthner

Affiliation Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

Oliver Bauer

Affiliation Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

Heribert Appelhans

Affiliation Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

Diego Franciotta

Affiliation Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Foundation Neurological Institute C. Mondino, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

Roberto Bergamaschi

Affiliation Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Foundation Neurological Institute C. Mondino, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

Edward Littleton

Affiliations Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom , Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Jacqueline Palace

Affiliations Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom , Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Hans-Peter Seelig

Affiliation Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

Reinhard Hohlfeld

Affiliation Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Angela Vincent

Affiliations Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom , Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Frauke Zipp

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: frauke.zipp@charite.de

Affiliations Cecilie-Vogt-Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany , Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

FP, SJ, OA, and FZ designed the study. FP, SJ, OA, MB, and OB analyzed the data. FP, SJ, OA, RB, EL, JP, RH, and FZ enrolled patients. FP, SJ, OA, MB, DF, RH, AV, and FZ contributed to writing the paper. FP, OA, OB, DF, RB, HPS, RH, and FZ collected data or performed experiments for the study. FP, SJ, DF, RB, EL, JP, RH, and FZ collected and analyzed clinical, CSF, and MRI data, and tested patient sera. HA performed all experiments concerning the molecular cloning of aquaporin cDNA, verifying the DNA sequence, and choosing and providing the expression plasmid for in vitro transcription/translation. AV suggested additional experiments that were done before submission.