About the Authors

Masaharu Nomura, Hisayuki Shigematsu, Makoto Suzuki, Takao Takahashi, John D Minna, Adi F Gazdar
Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Lin Li, Ziding Feng
Cancer Prevention Research, Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Pila Estess, Mark Siegelman, Adi F Gazdar
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Harubumi Kato
First Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan

Antonio Marchetti
Pathology Unit, Clinical Research Center, Center of Excellence on Aging, University Foundation, Chieti, Italy

Jerry W Shay
Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Margaret R Spitz
Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Ignacio I Wistuba
Department of Pathology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

John D Minna
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

John D Minna
Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Corresponding Author

adi.gazdar@utsouthwestern.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

M. Nomura, H. Shigematsu, P. Estess, M. Siegelman, and A. F. Gazdar designed the study. M. Nomura, H. Shigematsu, T. Takahashi and I. I. Wistuba collected data or performed experiments for the study. M. Nomura made the primer sets for the target genes and modified the conditions of PCR reactions. M. Suzuki, H. Shigematsu, and I. I. Wistuba collected the samples for the study and their clinicopathological data. A. F. Gazdar supervised the analysis of the data. M. Nomura, L. Li, Z. Feng, H. Kato, J. D. Minna, and A. F. Gazdar analyzed the data. P. Estess interpreted early data, designed subsequent approaches, and provided expertise in experimental approaches. M. Siegelman provided technical expertise and instrumentation to perform the analysis. A. Marchetti analyzed the DNA samples for EGFR mutations. M. Suzuki, H. Shigematsu, A. Marchetti, M. R. Spitz, and I. I. Wistuba enrolled patients. A. Marchetti collected tissues and data from Italian patients in the study and extracted DNA samples from tissues. M. R. Spitz provided the DNA samples from normal individuals in the US. I. I. Wistuba provided the DNA samples from patients in US. J. W. Shay and J. D. Minna provided HBECs. All authors contributed to writing the paper.