About the Authors

Julia Leimkugel

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Abraham Hodgson

Affiliation Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Navrongo, Ghana

Abudulai Adams Forgor

Affiliation Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Navrongo, Ghana

Valentin Pflüger

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Jean-Pierre Dangy

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Tom Smith

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Mark Achtman

Affiliation Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany

Sébastien Gagneux

Address ¤ Current address: The Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Gerd Pluschke

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Gerd.Pluschke@unibas.ch

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JL was involved in the collection of samples, identification of bacterial isolates, handling of the database, multilocus sequencing analysis, pulsed field analysis, analysis of the data, and writing of the manuscript. AH participated in the establishment of the study, collection of the samples, the treatment of the patients, and writing of the manuscript. AAF was engaged in the collection of the samples, the treatment of the patients, and analysis of the data. VP participated in the collection of samples and isolation and characterisation of bacterial isolates. JPD was involved in the multilocus sequence analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. TS contributed in the analysis of the demographic and epidemiological data and the spatial distribution of the meningitis cases and carriers of N. meningitidis in KND. MA was involved in the establishment of the study, pulsed field analysis, multilocus sequence analysis, and analysis of the data. SG participated in the establishment of the study, collection of samples, identification of bacterial isolates, multilocus sequence typing, analysis of the data, and writing of the manuscript. GP was responsible for the design and the supervision of the project and participated in the analysis of all data and writing of the manuscript. JL, AH, AAF, VP, JPD, TS, MA, SG, and GP critically revised the manuscript and gave their approval for submission of the final version.