About the Authors

Andy R Ness

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Andy.Ness@bristol.ac.uk

Affiliation Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

Sam D Leary

Affiliation Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Calum Mattocks

Affiliation Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Steven N Blair

Affiliation Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America

John J Reilly

Affiliation Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Jonathan Wells

Affiliation Medical Research Council Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Sue Ingle

Affiliation Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Kate Tilling

Affiliation Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

George Davey Smith

Affiliation Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Chris Riddoch

¤ Current address: School for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United KIngdom

Affiliation London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ARN, CM, GDS, and CR devised the analysis plan. ARN, SDL, CM, SNB, JJR, JW, SI, KT, GDS, and CR contributed to discussions that informed the analysis plan. SDL and SI carried out the analysis with advice from KT. ARN wrote the first draft of the paper. All authors commented on subsequent drafts and approved the final version of the paper. ARN had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.