About the Authors

Monique Nijhuis

Affiliation Eijkman Winkler Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Noortje M van Maarseveen

Affiliation Eijkman Winkler Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Stephane Lastere

Affiliation APHP-Hopital Bichat, Laboratoire Virologie, Paris, France

Pauline Schipper

Affiliation Eijkman Winkler Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Eoin Coakley

Affiliation Monogram Biosciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Bärbel Glass

Affiliation Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Mirka Rovenska

Affiliation Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

Dorien de Jong

Affiliation Eijkman Winkler Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Colombe Chappey

Affiliation Monogram Biosciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Irma W Goedegebuure

Affiliation Eijkman Winkler Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Gabrielle Heilek-Snyder

Affiliation Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

Dominic Dulude

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, Université de Montreal, Montreal, Canada

Nick Cammack

Affiliation Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

Lea Brakier-Gingras

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, Université de Montreal, Montreal, Canada

Jan Konvalinka

Affiliation Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

Neil Parkin

Affiliation Monogram Biosciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Hans-Georg Kräusslich

Affiliation Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Francoise Brun-Vezinet

Affiliation APHP-Hopital Bichat, Laboratoire Virologie, Paris, France

Charles A. B Boucher

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: c.boucher@umcutrecht.nl

Affiliation Eijkman Winkler Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Competing Interests

EC is an employee of Monogram Biosciences.

Author Contributions

MN, SL, BG, IWG, and CABB designed the study. MN, SL, PS, EC, MR, DdJ, CC, IWG, DD, JK, NP, HGK, and FBV analyzed the data. MN, NMvM, SL, EC, BG, CC, GHS, DD, NC, LBG, NP, HGK, FBV, and CBB contributed to writing the paper. MN, NMvM, PS, DdJ, IWG, and FBV collected data or did experiments for the study. SL designed and analyzed the clinical part of the study (i.e., impact of Gag cleavage site mutations on the virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy). This was investigated for the NARVAL (ANRS 088) trial. FBV was the study leader. BG tested the wild-type and mutant virus in an infectious context, with or without inhibitor, and did the Western blot analysis. MR performed the kinetic analyses of peptide cleavage by HIV protease. GHS provided compound for and helpful discussions about this study. DD designed and did the experiments for measuring the frameshift efficiency of viral variants of this study along with LBG. NP performed analysis of genotypic and phenotypic data relating to gag mutations in clinical samples. HGK performed quantitative immunoblot experiments shown in the paper together with his technician.