About the Authors
Eijkman Winkler Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
APHP-Hopital Bichat, Laboratoire Virologie, Paris, France
Monogram Biosciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, California, United States of America
Department of Biochemistry, Université de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
EC is an employee of Monogram Biosciences.
MN, SL, BG, IWG, and CABB designed the study. MN, SL, PS, EC, MR, DdJ, CC, IWG, DD, JK, NP, HGK, and FBV analyzed the data. MN, NMvM, SL, EC, BG, CC, GHS, DD, NC, LBG, NP, HGK, FBV, and CBB contributed to writing the paper. MN, NMvM, PS, DdJ, IWG, and FBV collected data or did experiments for the study. SL designed and analyzed the clinical part of the study (i.e., impact of Gag cleavage site mutations on the virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy). This was investigated for the NARVAL (ANRS 088) trial. FBV was the study leader. BG tested the wild-type and mutant virus in an infectious context, with or without inhibitor, and did the Western blot analysis. MR performed the kinetic analyses of peptide cleavage by HIV protease. GHS provided compound for and helpful discussions about this study. DD designed and did the experiments for measuring the frameshift efficiency of viral variants of this study along with LBG. NP performed analysis of genotypic and phenotypic data relating to gag mutations in clinical samples. HGK performed quantitative immunoblot experiments shown in the paper together with his technician.