About the Authors

Maëlle Carraz

Affiliations Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Substances Naturelles, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France , Inserm U511, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France , Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Akino Jossang

Affiliation Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Substances Naturelles, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Jean-François Franetich

Affiliations Inserm U511, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France , Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Anthony Siau

Affiliations Inserm U511, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France , Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Liliane Ciceron

Affiliations Inserm U511, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France , Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Laurent Hannoun

Affiliation AP HP, Service de Chirurgie Digestive, Hépato-Bilio-Pancréatique et Transplantation Hépatique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Robert Sauerwein

Affiliation University Medical Center St. Radboud, Department of Medical Microbiology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

François Frappier

† Deceased.

Affiliation Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Substances Naturelles, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Philippe Rasoanaivo

Affiliation Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie Appliquée aux Maladies Infectieuses, Institut Malgache de Recherches Appliquées, Antananarivo, Madagascar

Georges Snounou

Affiliation Laboratoire de Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Dominique Mazier

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mazier@chups.jussieu.fr

Affiliations Inserm U511, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France , Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France , Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Competing Interests

Patents have been filed on compounds mentioned in this paper: Priority Europe No 04 291 055.4 April 22 2004; International Patent Application 21 April 2005 No PCT/EP 2005/005239 (MC, JFF, AJ, FF, PR, and DM). The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

MC assisted in the experimental design, carried out the bulk of the experimental work, and contributed significantly to the composition of the manuscript. FF, PR, and DM initiated the project. AJ and FF directed the chemical aspects of the work, while GS and DM directed the biological facets of the work, and composed the manuscript. JFF supervised and significantly helped with much of the biological experimental investigations. AS and LC helped with some of the experimental work. LH, RS, and PR provided essential materials. FF, listed as an author of this paper, died before its publication. The corresponding author, DM, has therefore supplied the information regarding his contribution to the manuscript and his competing interests, and it is correct to the best of her knowledge.