About the Authors

Philippe Bourgois

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: philippe.bourgois@ucsf.edu

Affiliation Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Alexis Martinez

Affiliation Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Alex Kral

Affiliations Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America , RTI International, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Brian R Edlin

Affiliations Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America , Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America

Jeff Schonberg

Affiliation Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Dan Ciccarone

Affiliations Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America , Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

PB, AK, BRE, and DC designed the collaborative study. PB, AM, AK, JS, and DC analyzed the data. PB, AM, AK, BRE, JS, and DC contributed to writing the paper. PB and JS collected ethnographic data. AM ran the statistics. AK collected epidemiological data. BRE served as Director of the UHS from 1997 through 2002 and supervised the study design, including the questionnaires, the policies and procedures for the field staff, and the management of the data. JS collected photographic data. DC coordinated the interdisciplinary analyses between anthropological and epidemiological researchers.