About the Authors

S. V Subramanian

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: svsubram@hsph.harvard.edu

Affiliation Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

George Davey Smith

Affiliation University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Malavika Subramanyam

Affiliation Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SVS conceived the study and analyzed and interpreted the data. GDS contributed to the analysis and interpretation of the results. MS assisted with literature review and data analysis. SVS wrote and edited the manuscript. GDS contributed to the editing of the manuscript.