About the Authors

Amorsolo L Suguitan Jr.

Contributed equally to this work with: Amorsolo L Suguitan Jr., Josephine McAuliffe

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Josephine McAuliffe

Contributed equally to this work with: Amorsolo L Suguitan Jr., Josephine McAuliffe

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Kimberly L Mills

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Hong Jin

Affiliation MedImmune Vaccines, Mountain View, California, United States of America

Greg Duke

Affiliation MedImmune Vaccines, Mountain View, California, United States of America

Bin Lu

Affiliation MedImmune Vaccines, Mountain View, California, United States of America

Catherine J Luke

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Brian Murphy

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

David E Swayne

Affiliation Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

George Kemble

Affiliation MedImmune Vaccines, Mountain View, California, United States of America

Kanta Subbarao

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ksubbarao@niaid.nih.gov

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

BM, GK, and KS conceived the idea and were the lab chief of the NIH team and principal investigators of the NIH and MedImmune teams, respectively. JM, HJ, GD, BL, and KS produced recombinant cDNAs and rescued the viruses by reverse genetics. ALS, JM, KLM, and KS performed the mouse and ferret studies. DES was responsible for evaluation of the viruses in chickens and CEF cells. BM advised on the preparation of the manuscript. ALS, CJL, and KS wrote the article, with input from all of the authors. All of the authors participated in analysis and interpretation of the data.