About the Authors

Christian A Ganoza

Contributed equally to this work with: Christian A Ganoza, Michael A Matthias

Affiliation Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Michael A Matthias

Contributed equally to this work with: Christian A Ganoza, Michael A Matthias

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Devon Collins-Richards

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Kimberly C Brouwer

Affiliation Division of International Health and Cross-Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Calaveras B Cunningham

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Eddy R Segura

Affiliation Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Robert H Gilman

Affiliation Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Eduardo Gotuzzo

Affiliation Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Joseph M Vinetz

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jvinetz@ucsd.edu

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

CAG, ERS, and JMV designed the study. CAG, MAM, KCB, CBC, and JMV analyzed the data. JMV enrolled patients. CAG, MAM, DCR, KCB, CBC, ERS, RHG, EGH, and JMV contributed to writing the paper. KCB's role in preparation of this work also included creation of laboratory and spatial data maps, analysis of geospatial and visualization data, and writing and editing drafts. CDC conducted nested PCRs from DNA extracted from water samples and ran gels. CDC then cloned samples, performed real-time PCR experiments on the clones, submitted samples for sequencing, and finally edited and analyzed the sequences. ERS contributed to setup of the urban and rural components of the study, collection of samples, and running of preliminary PCR. EGH added substantial contributions to later versions of the paper.