About the Authors

Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
World Health Organization, Stop TB Department, Geneva, Switzerland

James O Lloyd-Smith, Wayne M Getz
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

James O Lloyd-Smith
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Eleanor Gouws, Catherine Hankins
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Policy, Evidence, and Partnerships Department, Geneva, Switzerland

John Hargrove
South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Isabelle de Zoysa
World Health Organization, Family and Community Health, Geneva, Switzerland

Bertran Auvert
INSERM, Saint Maurice, France

Bertran Auvert
University of Versailles-Saint Quentin, Faculté de Médecine Paris-Ile-de-France-Ouest, Saint Maurice, France

Bertran Auvert
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Ambroise Pare, Boulogne, France

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

All authors contributed to considering the problem and writing the paper. BA proposed the development of this model. BGW, JOLS, EG, WMG, JH, CD, and BA developed and applied the model. EG assembled the data on MC and HIV rates. CH and IDZ interpreted the data and developed the policy implications.