About the Authors

Brian G Williams

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: williamsbg@who.int

Affiliation World Health Organization, Stop TB Department, Geneva, Switzerland

James O Lloyd-Smith

Affiliations Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America , Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Eleanor Gouws

Affiliation Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Policy, Evidence, and Partnerships Department, Geneva, Switzerland

Catherine Hankins

Affiliation Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Policy, Evidence, and Partnerships Department, Geneva, Switzerland

Wayne M Getz

Affiliation Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

John Hargrove

Affiliation South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Isabelle de Zoysa

Affiliation World Health Organization, Family and Community Health, Geneva, Switzerland

Christopher Dye

Affiliation World Health Organization, Stop TB Department, Geneva, Switzerland

Bertran Auvert

Affiliations INSERM, Saint Maurice, France , University of Versailles-Saint Quentin, Faculté de Médecine Paris-Ile-de-France-Ouest, Saint Maurice, France , Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Ambroise Pare, Boulogne, France

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

All authors contributed to considering the problem and writing the paper. BA proposed the development of this model. BGW, JOLS, EG, WMG, JH, CD, and BA developed and applied the model. EG assembled the data on MC and HIV rates. CH and IDZ interpreted the data and developed the policy implications.