About the Authors

Jan ter Meulen

Contributed equally to this work with: Jan ter Meulen, Edward N van den Brink

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: j.termeulen@crucell.com

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Edward N van den Brink

Contributed equally to this work with: Jan ter Meulen, Edward N van den Brink

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Leo L. M Poon

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

Wilfred E Marissen

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Cynthia S. W Leung

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

Freek Cox

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Chung Y Cheung

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

Arjen Q Bakker

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Johannes A Bogaards

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Els van Deventer

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Wolfgang Preiser

Affiliation Institute for Medical Virology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Hans Wilhelm Doerr

Affiliation Institute for Medical Virology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Vincent T Chow

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

John de Kruif

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Joseph S. M Peiris

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

Jaap Goudsmit

Affiliation Crucell Holland B.V., Leiden, Netherlands

Competing Interests

Part of the direct costs (labor, cell culture material) of the SARS-CoV neutralization experiments performed with the monoclonal antibodies at the Universities of Frankfurt and Hong Kong were reimbursed by Crucell Holland BV. Crucell was involved in the design, the analysis of the data, and the publication decision. However, Crucell was at no time involved in performing experiments with live virus. JtM, ENvdB, WEM, FC, AQB, JAB, EvD, JdK, and JG are employees of Crucell Holland BV.

Author Contributions

JtM, ENvdB, JdK, and JG designed the study. AQB built the immune library, and ENvdB and FC isolated mAb CR3022. WP and HWD designed and performed virus neutralization experiments. JAB designed and analyzed the synergy experiments, which were performed by CSWL, CYC, and WP. ENvdB and FC constructed the recombinant spike fragments and tested their binding to mAbs. EvD designed and performed Biacore experiments. LLMP, WEM, CSWL, CYC, and JSMP designed and performed the rescue of the neutralization escape viruses and macrophage infection assays. VTC recruited the patient whose lymphocytes were used for library construction to generate the monoclonal antibody CR3022. JtM, ENvdB, LLMP, WEM, CYC, AQB, JAB, EvD, WP, HWD, VTC, JdK, JSMP, and JG analyzed and interpreted the data and contributed to writing the paper.