About the Authors

Pontus Thulin, Linda Johansson, Anna Norrby-Teglund
Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

Donald E Low, Bing S Gan, Allison McGeer
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Bing S Gan
Department of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Bing S Gan
Department of Pharmacology/Toxicology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Bing S Gan
Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Malak Kotb
Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America

Malak Kotb
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America

Malak Kotb
Department of Immunology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America

Malak Kotb
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America

Corresponding Author

anna.norrby-teglund@medhs.ki.se

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

PT, DEL, and ANT designed the study. DEL, BSG, and AM enrolled patients. PT and LJ performed the experiments. MK was involved in the design studies with the SpeB wild-type and gene-deletion mutant. PT, LJ, DEL, BSG, MK, and ANT analyzed the data and contributed to writing the paper.