About the Authors

David Wendler, Ezekiel Emanuel
Department of Clinical Bioethics, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Raynard Kington
Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jennifer Madans, Laura A Pratt
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland, United States of America

Gretchen Van Wye
Department of Epidemiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Heidi Christ-Schmidt
Statistics Collaborative, Washington, D. C., United States of America

Otis W Brawley
Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Cary P Gross
Section of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Corresponding Author

dwendler@nih.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DW, RK, and EE designed the study. DW, JM, GV, HC, LAP, CPG, and EE analyzed the data. DW, RK, JM, GV, HC, LAP, OWB, CPG, and EE contributed to writing the paper.