About the Authors

Xialin Liu

Contributed equally to this work with: Xialin Liu, Shoukang Zhu

Affiliation Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Shoukang Zhu

Contributed equally to this work with: Xialin Liu, Shoukang Zhu

Affiliation Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Tao Wang

Affiliation Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Laura Hummers

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Fredrick M Wigley

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Pascal J Goldschmidt-Clermont

Affiliation Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Chunming Dong

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dong0005@mc.duke.edu

Affiliation Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

CD had the original idea for the study, and designed and oversaw the study. XL and SZ performed most of the experimental procedures and data analysis and participated in the study design. TW performed some experiments. LH and FMW recruited the patients and collected the skin biopsies. PJGC helped develop the concept of the study, and coordinated and supervised the experiments. XL, PJGC, and CD contributed to the writing of the report.