About the Authors

Margaret J Mackinnon

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Mjm88@cam.ac.uk

Affiliations School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Tabitha W Mwangi

Affiliation Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya

Robert W Snow

Affiliations Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya, Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Kevin Marsh

Affiliations Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya, Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Thomas N Williams

Affiliations Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya, Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

TWM, KM, and TNW conceived and conducted the mild disease cohort study, and pedigree data were collected by MJM and TWM. RWS and TNW designed and conducted the birth cohort study. Statistical analyses were conducted by MJM. Patients were enrolled by TWM, RWS, and TNW. MJM and TNW wrote the paper.