About the Authors

Olivia Barigye, Lucia Pasquini, Paula Galea, Lucy Chappell, Nicholas M Fisk
Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, and Centre for Fetal Care, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Helen Chambers
Perinatal Pathology Unit, Department of Histopathology, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

Nicholas Fisk is on the editorial board of PLoS Medicine.

Author Contributions

LC and NMF designed the study. OB, LP, PG, and NMF acquired data. OB, HC, LC, and NMF analyzed the data. OB, LP, PG, HC, LC, and NMF contributed to writing the paper.