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The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals

Fig 2

Molecular evolution of venom in centipedes (A) and spiders (B).

A plot of site-specific ω against amino acid positions for various centipede and spider venom-encoding genes is presented in panel A and B, respectively. Significantly detected positively selected sites (model 8; Bayes Empirical Bayes approach) are presented as large red circles. The red horizontal line represents the line of neutrality: points above and below this line indicate positive and negative selection, respectively. A corresponding bar plot is provided, which shows the computed ω value for the respective toxin class. Bar plot color code: Panel A 1) Novel family (NF) 8; 2) NF 6; 3) NF 4; 4) NF 1; 5) β-PFT; 6) CAP; 7) LDLA; 8) SLPTX 1; 9) SLPTX 4; 10) SLPTX 5; 11) SLPTX 10; 12) SLPTX 11; 13) SLPTX 12; 14) SLPTX 13; 15) SLPTX 15; 16) SLPTX 16; 17) SLPTX 17; Panel B 1) lycotoxins; 2) latrotoxins; 3) magi-1 family; 4) Kunitz toxins; 5) Sphingomyelinase D; 6) Huwentoxin-1 family; 7) κ/ω-hexatoxins; 8) κ-hexatoxins; 9) ω-hexatoxins; 10) Superfamily E ICKs.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005596.g002