Coordinated Evolution of Influenza A Surface Proteins
Mutations at sites N1-78 and H1-153 are marked by orange and blue circles, respectively; mutations at site N1-275 are marked by green circles. Site N1-275 was found to form a highly scoring intra-gene epistatic pair with site N1-78 in our previous study  (see text for details). Only mutations that form consecutive pairs are shown (see Materials and Methods); see S1 Data for all mutations. Vertical bars show years in which the isolates where sampled. The inset shows the inferred directionality of epistatic interactions with arrows pointing from the leading to the trailing sites.