Transfer RNAs Mediate the Rapid Adaptation of Escherichia coli to Oxidative Stress
(A) Percentages of cleaved tRNA reads. X-axes indicate the number of bases cleaved from the 3′-termini. The Y-axes denote the fraction of such tRNA reads among all tRNA reads relative to each specific tRNA species. Three tRNAs are shown as examples. The observed distributions of the cleavage lengths were compared between normal (blue bars) and oxidative stress conditions (red bars). (B,C) The degradation of full-length tRNA in in vitro translation system. Eleven tRNAs were randomly selected and quantified by qRT-PCR. The difference observed between the oxidative stress and normal conditions are expressed in terms of ΔΔCT values, normalized using spike-in RNA (B) or 5S rRNA (C). The data are shown as the mean ± SD.