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A Conserved Dopamine-Cholecystokinin Signaling Pathway Shapes Context–Dependent Caenorhabditis elegans Behavior

Figure 5

Elevated NLP-12 signaling induces a chronic local search-like state.

(A) Representative tracks (45 s) of wild type (black lines) and nlp-12(OE) (red lines) animals during 0–5 and 30–35 minute intervals after removal from food as indicated. nlp-12(OE) refers to a transgenic strain (ufIs104) stably expressing high levels of the wild type nlp-12 genomic sequence. Note that high angled reorientations still persist during the 30–35 minute interval for nlp-12(OE) in contrast to the long forward run of the wild type animal. The starting point of each track is indicated by an arrowhead (wild type: black; nlp-12(OE): red). (B) Total directional reorientations measured during 0–5 and 30–35 minute intervals following removal from food for wild type (n = 8) and nlp-12(OE) (n = 15) animals. (C) Average body bend amplitude for the genotypes indicated. –DVA refers to DVA ablation (WT: n = 11, nlp-12(OE): n = 15, nlp-12(OE) -DVA: n = 10, unc-29: n = 30, unc-29;nlp-12(OE): n = 22, acr-16: n = 16, acr-16;nlp-12(OE): n = 15). (D) Frequency distribution of bending angles for wild type (black) and nlp-12(OE) (red) animals monitored on bacteria seeded plates for 30 s (WT: n = 12, nlp-12(OE): n = 15). (E) Bar graph depicting total percentage of bending angles ≥75° for the genotypes indicated (WT: n = 12, nlp-12(OE): n = 14, nlp-12(OE) -DVA: n = 9, unc-29: n = 10, unc-29;nlp-12(OE): n = 12, acr-16: n = 10, acr-16;nlp-12(OE): n = 12). Note that wild type worms rarely execute bends ≥75°. Bars represent mean (±SEM). For (B), (C) and (E) ***, p<0.0001 by ANOVA with Sidak's post-hoc test.

Figure 5