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A Conserved Dopamine-Cholecystokinin Signaling Pathway Shapes Context–Dependent Caenorhabditis elegans Behavior

Figure 2

Locomotory phenotypes associated with L-AChR(gf) expression require neuropeptide signaling.

(A) Average body bends/min measured in liquid for the genotypes indicated. The strong locomotory defects of egl-3 and egl-21 mutants prevented analysis of L-AChR(gf) effects on agar (Fig. S3A, B). Mutation of pkc-1 normalized the locomotor effects of L-AChR(gf) in both liquid and on agar (Fig. S3C–E). (B) Movement trajectories of wild type, L-AChR(gf), nlp-12;L-AChR(gf) animals as indicated. Each black line shows the trajectory of one animal monitored for 45 s on food. (C) Average body bend amplitude for the genotypes indicated. Each bar represents the mean (±SEM) of values calculated from recordings of at least 15 animals. For (A) and (C) ***, p<0.0001 by ANOVA with Sidak's post-hoc test. (D) Wide-field epifluorescent image of an adult animal expressing nlp-12::SL2::mCherry. The image is oriented with the head to the left. White rectangle: nerve ring. Arrow: DVA cell body. (E) Average body bend amplitude for the indicated genotypes and effects of DVA ablation (–DVA). Ablations were performed on L2 stage animals. Body bend amplitude was measured from recordings of young adult animals 2 days following laser ablation. Error bars indicate mean (±SEM) of at least 8 animals. ***, p<0.0001 student's t-test.

Figure 2